Wednesday, 12 February 2014

DEMENTIA; EVERYONE COULD BE AT RISK

How can a person avoid getting dementia or securing a dementia free life? Dementia is irrespective of a person, personality or an individual, we might only be able to avoid dementia if we could establish who is prone to dementia and why a certain human being, could be anyone is going to get dementia.

The real test of a man is not how well he plays the role he has invented for himself, but how well he plays the role that destiny assigned to him.

Simply a malfunction can occur in the human brain if a protein is altered, or if too much or too little is made. Sometimes, the outcome is extreme leading to death of cells in the brain. 

Let's embrace this example, the perfectly conditioned human system expels waste from the body with the help of particular organs but to keep people healthy the job must be done irrespective of place or time. So to pee or not to poo? Is never the question to the body but the brain has to compromise the situation. So if a person is on a bus and has to use the toilet, the brain receives and sends signals to the body to hold it's peace till the person makes it to the toilet. What if the cells the brain uses to execute such tasks die.

If there were no falsehood in the world, there would be no doubt; if there were no doubt, there would be no inquiry; if no inquiry, no wisdom, no knowledge, no genius.

Neurone death is the main cause of dementia and is often related to malfunctions in the communication system that a neuron needs to survive. However, if the immune system of the brain is too active and causes inflammation, this can also damage cells. Unlike most cells, when neurons die, other cells do not divide and replace them. Therefore dementias are progressive and cannot be reversed.

All types of dementia are progressive. This means that the structure and chemistry of the brain become increasingly damaged over time. The person's ability to remember, understand, communicate and reason gradually declines and fades into comparably blankness.

How quickly dementia progresses depends on the individual. Each person is unique and experiences dementia in their own way.
The way people experience dementia depends on many factors, including physical make up, emotional resilience and the support available to them. Viewing dementia as a series of stages can be a useful way to understand the illness, but it is important to realise that this only provides a rough guide to the progress of the condition.

Oversleeping will never make one's dreams come true.

The word dementia stands for a set of symptoms that may include memory loss and difficulties with thinking, problem solving or language. Dementia is caused when the brain is damaged by diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of strokes. Too often people put dementia and Alzheimer's into separate categories, but Alzheimer's is only a type of dementia and there are several others, as well as new ones evolving, evolving that's how Darwin might recognise dementia.

It is important that man dreams, but it is perhaps equally important that he can laugh at his own dreams, and 
It is priceless to share with others.
Dementia knows no dreams or reality.

With other resources let's get acquainted Inside the brain. The brain is the most complex organ in the human body and is separated into regions responsible for certain functions. It contains many specialised cells. Over the years we have begun to understand how each type of brain cell works. However, it is still not clear how these cells are linked together to perform complicated actions and why problems in cells cause changes in behaviour. The cerebral cortex makes up the bulk of the brain and is the location of complex thoughts and functions. Each half, or hemisphere, of cortex is made up of four lobes.

Neurons
There are two main types of brain cells: the nerve cells or neurons, which relay signals like thoughts and feelings, and the supporting cells. There are 100 billion neurons in the brain. They are elongated with many tentacle like projections that make contact with other cells around them. Messages are passed within cells by tiny electrical impulses and between cells by chemical signals. Like any other cells in the body, neurons require oxygen and nutrients to stay alive. They also rely on close contact with neighbouring cells. Without these a neuron will die.

Supporting cells
There is roughly one supporting cell for every neuron in the brain. These cells surround and provide support to neurons, supply nutrients and oxygen, regulate communication between neurons and act as the brain's immune system. Two of note are: astrocytes which regulate the environment of the brain and are crucial in forming the 'blood brain barrier' that protects the brain, and oligodendrocytes, which surround, protect and insulate neurons and are essential for effective cell communication.

Dementia describes a group of symptoms associated with long-term decline of mental ability. There are many causes of dementia that affect the brain in different ways and determine the symptoms that a person experiences. For example, memory loss and impairment in Alzheimer's disease is associated with damage to the hippocampus and the temporal and parietal lobes. All cells are like miniature factories, producing thousands of proteins with specific functions to keep the cell alive.

Alzheimer's Disease
Alzheimer's disease affects an estimated 465,000 people in the UK. It is associated with accumulation of two proteins, amyloid and tau, into plaques and tangles in the brain. Specialists aim to understand this process and to develop a treatment against it.

Amyloid
Beta amyloid is a small protein that is produced in all nerve cells. It is a by product that is formed when a much larger protein, called amyloid precursor protein (APP), is broken down. Beta amyloid accumulates as plaques in Alzheimer's disease and is a hallmark of the disease. A great deal of work is focused by specialists on detecting changes to amyloid in the brain as the basis of a diagnostic tool.

Tau
Tau is also produced by healthy neurons. It is essential for maintaining the shape of the cells, as well as ensuring that cells can communicate effectively with each other. Research suggests that in Alzheimer's disease an abnormal version of tau is produced, preventing it from performing its job properly and causing it to accumulate into tangles (known as neurofibrillary tangles or NFT). This disrupts the structure and communication within the nerve cells, leading to cell death. Current research is focused on understanding how abnormal tau is produced and what it does.

Vascular dementia
Blood carries all the oxygen and nutrients to the brain and there are thousands of blood vessels that feed the different regions. If blood flow is reduced, cells in the brain begin to starve and die. This can lead to vascular dementia. One type of vascular dementia, called multi-infarct dementia, is caused when blood vessels become blocked, for example during a stroke. The other type, small-vessel disease occurs when the walls of blood vessels are damaged causing little bleeds. This leads to localised damage, and disrupted blood flow, throughout the brain.

Dementia with Lewy bodies
Dementia with Lewy bodies and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD) are linked to Parkinson's disease. In this type of dementia, an abnormal version of a protein called alpha synuclein accumulates in clumps in the brain. This is associated with a loss of communication between cells, leading to loss of specific types of neurons. Symptoms include impaired mental ability, movement difficulties, and a rapid progression of symptoms.

Fronto-temporal dementia
Fronto-temporal dementia, which includes Pick's disease, is associated with deterioration of the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain. Symptoms include changes in personality and mood, and language difficulties. Fronto-temporal dementia often affects younger people and has been linked to certain genes.

Specialists admit the complications in admitting an accurate picture of what is occurring within the brain. At the moment, postmortem analysis is the only way to find out exactly what caused a person's dementia. 

Today dementia is diagnosed by: Mini Mental State Exam, a cognitive assessment tool which establishes mental impairment. A physical examination as very important can necessarily affect when and what treatment is provided. Brain scans including MRI can detect signs of dementia in the brain. Psychological assessments can also help to detect early signs of dementia.

There are two kinds of people; those who can count and those who can't, but when it comes to dementia every person is unique, with if not special a different personality. Person centred care really works best in dementia care.

It's not what's happening to we now or what has happened in our past that determines who we become. Rather, it's our decisions about what to focus on, what things mean to us, and what we are going to do about them that will determine our ultimate destiny.