Monday, 16 July 2012

THE ABNORMALITIES OF MENSTRUAL PERIODS

The reasonable woman adapts herself to the world; the unreasonable woman persists in trying to adapt the world to herself. Therefore, all progress depends on the unreasonable woman.

Amenorrhea is the term used to describe the condition where menstrual periods are absent. When you miss a period, your first thought may be that you are pregnant.


A rolling stone can gather no moss.

Menstruation refers to the shedding of the lining of the uterus (the endometrium) each month, and it is also commonly known as the menstrual period.

We must become the change we want to see.

Menstrual periods usually last for five to seven days. In order for a woman to have regular menstrual cycles, her hypothalamus, pituitary gland, ovaries and uterus must be functioning properly. Her cervix and vagina must also be structured normally to allow for menstrual blood to pass through. Wow beautiful knowledge can be sweeter than honey.

What I possess I would gladly retain. Change amuses the mind, yet scarcely profits.

Amenorrhea is classified into two types primary and secondary amenorrhea.

Primary Amenorrhea

Primary amenorrhea occurs when a woman has not yet had her first menstrual period by the age of 16. This delayed period is usually due to late puberty, most common in teenage girls who are either very thin or very athletic. When young women are underweight, their bodies have yet to experience the normal puberty related rise in body fat that sparks off the beginning of menstruation. On the other hand, the delay of menstruation may also be as a result of abnormal female reproductive organs or a genetic disorder involving the sex chromosomes, such as Turner’s syndrome.

We are not the same persons this year as last; nor are those we love. It is a happy chance if we, changing, continue to love each other.

Secondary Amenorrhea

Secondary amenorrhea is a condition in which a woman who previously had normal, regular menstrual cycles experiences irregular or absent periods.
Amenorrhea affects a lot of women of childbearing age. Secondary amenorrhea can affect all women who have begun menstruating. Young women who are involved in sports where intense exercise is required like ballet, long distance running or gymnastics are more likely to be affected with amenorrhea.

Most of us are about as eager to be changed as we were to be born, and go through our changes in a similar state of shock.

Amenorrhea is a symptom in itself. Depending on the cause of amenorrhea, you may experience the absence of periods together with various symptoms of hormone imbalance such as breast milk secretions, headache, weight gain, acne, altered sex drive low libido, lowering of the voice, excessive hair growth on the face and body, and vision changes.

To live is to change, and to be perfect is to have changed often.

The diagnosis of amenorrhea is based on your medical history, physical examination, as well as a pelvic examination. Your health practitioner has to rule out other menstrual disorders, medical conditions, as well as medications in order to determine a proper diagnosis of amenorrhea.
Whether you are pregnant or not has to also be determined, a woman has to have missed at least three consecutive menstrual cycles without being pregnant to be classified as having amenorrhea.

People can cry much easier than they can change.

A young woman 16 years of age or older who has not yet had her first menstrual period should be evaluated immediately so that an early diagnosis can be made and treatment started. In addition, other tests may be performed to determine the underlying cause of the absence of periods.

Remember, no human condition is ever permanent. Then you will not be overjoyed in good fortune nor too scornful in misfortune.

Blood and urine tests are able to detect the imbalances of female hormones caused by problems with the ovaries or pituitary gland. Additional tests may also be performed to check levels of thyroid and adrenal hormones.

Pelvic ultrasound uses sound waves to detect problems or abnormalities in the structure of your uterus and ovaries.

A progesterone challenge test is done to evaluate your estrogen status. You may be treated with the hormone progesterone to see whether this brings about a menstrual period.

There are several possible causes of primary and secondary amenorrhea, and they include:

Primary Amenorrhea (causes)

Ovulation Abnormality

Certain ovulation or chromosomal abnormalities can cause the eggs involved in ovulation and menstruation to be prematurely depleted.

Genital Abnormalities
The absence of a uterus or vagina, vaginal septum, or imperforate hymen present since birth can also result in the absence of menstrual periods.

Hypothalamic Problems
The hypothalamus is a gland at the base of the brain that acts as the control center for the body and regulates your menstrual cycle. A disorder of the hypothalamus causing an absence of menstruation is known as functional hypothalamic amenorrhea. Strenuous exercise, excessive weight loss as a result of anorexia nervosa, bulimia or stress may also contribute to interference in the normal functioning of the hypothalamus.

Pituitary Disease
The pituitary gland is also responsible for regulating the menstrual cycle. A tumor or invasive growth may hinder the pituitary gland’s ability to perform this function.

Obesity
Females who are obese often experience amenorrhea as a result of excess fat cells interfering with the process of ovulation.

Thyroid Disease
An underactive thyroid causing hypothyroidism or an overactive thyroid causing hyperthyroidism may also be responsible for absent menstrual cycles.

Secondary Amenorrhea (causes)

Pregnancy
Pregnancy is the most common cause of amenorrhea in women of reproductive age. Women do not ovulate when they are pregnant, thus menstruation stops.

Birth Control
Often contraceptives such as birth control pills or hormonal injections can interfere with the menstrual cycle. If oral contraceptives are discontinued, regular ovulation and menstruation may take between 3-6 months to resume.

Excessive Exercise
Athletes or women who participate in strenuous physical training can experience absent menstrual cycles. There are many factors such as stress, low body fat and increased energy expenditure that contribute to athletes not having their periods.

Medical Conditions
Medical conditions such as traumatic brain injury, tumors of the brain, ovary, or adrenal gland, ovarian cysts, overproduction of prolactin by the pituitary gland, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism, chronic illness, and Asherman's syndrome (scarring of the uterine lining caused by infection or surgery) can also cause secondary amenorrhea.

Premature Menopause
Menopause that occurs before age 40 is considered premature menopause. It is also associated with secondary amenorrhea and may result from genetic factors or an autoimmune disease.

Hormonal Imbalance
Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is a disorder associated with hormonal imbalances and may also result in a loss of periods, obesity, acne, and at times, excess facial hair.

Change hurts. It makes people insecure, confused, and angry. People want things to be the same as they've always been, because that makes life easier. But, if you're a leader, you can't let your people hang on to the past.

Other causes of secondary amenorrhea may be related to breastfeeding, physical and emotional stress, depression, certain medications, malnutrition, or sudden weight loss or weight gain.

Change, like sunshine, can be a friend or a foe, a blessing or a curse, a dawn or a dusk.