Sunday, 6 May 2012

Prostate cancer


The prostate gland is located at the base of the bladder and it surrounds the urethra. The gland is an important source of fluid to the semen. The gland can become enlarged from non-cancerous growth (Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy), infection or cancer. Prostate cancer is prevalent and usually seen in patients over 60. Screening tests (PSA, AMACR) exists, and when used with regular exams can detect the cancer early. The cancer can metastasize and cause death.

Symptoms:
Many patients have no symptoms. Symptoms include: urinary hesitancy (delayed or slowed start of urinary stream), urinary dribbling, urinary retention, painful urination, painful ejaculation, lower back pain, painful bowel movement.

Treatment:
The appropriate treatment of prostate cancer is controversial and depends on the extent of the cancer, the age of the patient and the health of the patient. Treatment options include: surgery, hormonal therapy, radiation therapy, chemotherapy, photon therapy and proton therapy.
Tests are performed to establish the diagnosis and the extent of disease and may include: urine or prostatic fluid cytology, prostate biopsy, a bone scan, Positron Emission Tomagraphy (PET) scan. Screening test are available and include: PSA and AMACR (genetic marker).

Other Specific Tests:
Urine or prostatic fluid cytology, prostate biopsy, a bone scan, Positron Emission Tomagraphy (PET) scan, PSA , AMACR (genetic marker).